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Interview Questions

Virtual Storage Access Method Topic to Prepare for Interview

VSAM is an IBM DASD file storage access method, first used in the OS/VS1, OS/VS2 Release 1 (SVS) and Release 2 (MVS) operating systems, later used throughout the Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS) architecture and now in z/OS. Originally a record-oriented filesystem.[NB 2], VSAM comprises four[NB 2] data set organizations: Key Sequenced Data Set (KSDS), Relative Record Data Set (RRDS), Entry Sequenced Data Set (ESDS) and Linear Data Set (LDS). The KSDS, RRDS and ESDS organizations contain records, while the LDS organization (added later to VSAM) simply contains a sequence of pages with no intrinsic record structure, for use as a memory-mapped file.

IBM uses the term data set in official documentation as a synonym of file, and Direct access storage device (DASD) because it supported other devices similar to disk drives interview questions.

VSAM records can be of fixed or variable length. They are organised in fixed-size blocks called Control Intervals (CIs), and then into larger divisions called Control Areas (CAs). Control Interval sizes are measured in bytes — for example 4 kilobytes — while Control Area sizes are measured in disk tracks or cylinders. Control Intervals are the units of transfer between disk and computer so a read request will read one complete Control Interval. Control Areas are the units of allocation so, when a VSAM data set is defined, an integral number of Control Areas will be allocated.

The Access Method Services utility program IDCAMS is commonly used to manipulate (“delete and define”) VSAM data sets.

Custom programs can access VSAM datasets through Data Definition (DD) statements in Job Control Language (JCL), via dynamic allocation or in online regions such as in Customer Information Control System (CICS).

Both IMS/DB and DB2 are implemented on top of VSAM and use its underlying data structures JavaScript.

The physical organization of VSAM data sets differs considerably from the organizations used by other access methods, as follows.

VSAM data sets consist of control intervals (CI) and control areas (CA). The size of the CI and CA is normally determined by the access method, and the way in which they are used is not visible to the user. There will be a fixed number of control intervals in each control area.

A control interval normally contains multiple records. The records are stored within the control interval starting from the low address upwards. Control information is stored at the other end of the control interval, starting from the high address and moving downwards. The space between the records and the control information is free space. The control information comprises two types of entry: a control interval descriptor field (CIDF) which is always present, and record descriptor fields (RDF) which are present when there are records within the control interval and describe the length of the associated record. Free space within a CI is always contiguous.

When records are inserted into a control interval, they are placed in the correct order relative to other records. This may require records to be moved out of the way inside the control interval. Conversely, when a record is deleted, later records are moved down so that the free space remains contiguous. If there is not enough free space in a control interval for a record to be inserted, the control interval is split. Roughly half the records are stored in the original control interval while the remaining records are moved into a new control interval. The new control interval is taken from a pool of free control intervals within the same control area as the original control interval. If there is no remaining free control interval within that control area, the control area itself is split and the control intervals are distributed equally between the old and the new control areas.

You can use three types of record-orientated file organization with VSAM (the contents of linear data sets have no record structure):

Sequential VSAM organization
Further information: Entry Sequenced Data Set
An ESDS may have an index defined to it to enable access via keys, by defining an Alternate Index. Records in ESDS are stored in order in which they are written by address access. Records are loaded irrespective of their contents and their byte addresses cannot be changed.

Indexed VSAM organization
Further information: Key Sequenced Data Set
A KSDS has two parts: the index component and the data component. These may be stored on separate disk volumes.

While a basic KSDS only has one key (the primary key), alternate indices may be defined to permit the use of additional fields as secondary keys. An Alternate Index (AIX) is itself a KSDS.

The data structure used by a KSDS is nowadays known as a B+ tree.

Relative VSAM organization
Further information: Relative Record Data Set
An RRDS may have an index defined to it to enable access via keys, by defining an Alternate Index.

Linear VSAM organization
Further information: Linear Data Set
An LDS is an unstructured VSAM dataset with a control interval size of a multiple of 4K. It is used by certain system services.

VSAM Data Access Techniques
There are four types of access techniques for VSAM data:

Local Shared Resources (LSR), is optimised for “random” or direct access. LSR access is easy to achieve from CICS.
Global Shared Resources (GSR)

Non-Shared Resources (NSR), which is optimised for sequential access. NSR access has historically been easier to use than LSR for batch programs.
Distributed File Management (DFM), an implementation of a Distributed Data Management Architecture server, enables programs on remote computers to create, manage, and access VSAM files.

Sharing VSAM data
Sharing of VSAM data between CICS regions can be done by VSAM Record-Level Sharing (RLS). This adds record caching and, more importantly, record locking. Logging and commit processing remain the responsibility of CICS which means that sharing of VSAM data outside a CICS environment is severely restricted.

Read more about VSAM Interview Questions and answers.

Sharing between CICS regions and batch jobs requires Transactional VSAM, DFSMStvs. This is an optional program that builds on VSAM RLS by adding logging and two-phase commit, using underlying z/OS system services. This permits generalised sharing of VSAM data.

Career Options

Primary advantages of Tally ERP 9 | Interview Preparation

Tally is an accounting software widely accepted in India and across the globe. Earlier, manual accounting was the base and conventional method to record financial transactions, however as the economies have grown so as the financial world and as a consequence the conventional method has got eliminated. Tally provides the platform to record the financial transaction with extreme ease. Tally is designed in a way so that anyone regardless of the field he/she is in can understand. As the needs in this competitive world increase, tally improvises its versions keeping the base same.

Benefits of Tally ERP 9


In today’s world, Tally is one of the most well known names in the accounting world and Inventory management software. Tally viva questions, It’s widely acclaimed simply because it’s easy to use, operates at high speeds, is robust and powerful, has no codes, highly versatile and flexible, executes in real time and has full online help. In addition, the probability of Tally customization makes the software appropriate for distinctive business functions. Tally software can handle inventory as well as financial management, invoicing, reporting, sales and purchase management and MIS. An extremely powerful business management software solution is developed by Tally Solutions that caters to changing business requirements from the most fundamental to the more complex. The latest versions of Tally also manage taxation for businesses. Tally ERP 9 is the most recent as well as popular Tally software used by firms around the world.

Tally ERP 9 Quiz Questions

Tally Benefits

In today’s accounting and financial world, Tally ERP 9 software is holistic and relevant as it provides numerous technology benefits.

Tally Audit

A specified user can be provided administrator rights to check for accuracy of entries entered by authorised users and make changes where required. Audited entries along with alterations made are displayed with the name of the user who has made those alterations with the time of change.

Trustworthiness of Data

The tool is so robust that even the shutting down of a machine or failure of power during functioning does not affect the data stored in Tally database. Quality data integrity checks at regular levels ensure data dependability.

Tally Vault

The option of data encryption available in Tally is known as the Tally Vault. Data Encryption Standard (DES) method averts breaking of password for the vault.

Secured Data

Data integrity checks make certain that no external modifications to the data can interfere with Tally. The availability of binary encoding storage format evades tricky information grouping. Access to database is with the help of an activated ODBC layer.

There are several other Tally technology benefits which include security levels that are user defined, quick and easy installation, unlimited multi user support, internal backups, import or export of tally data and its graphical analysis besides many others. Many companies offer Tally integration as a part of Tally solutions, however, there are very few who are an authorized tally partner, tally erp 9 interview questions and answers pdf. Partnering with an authorized Tally partner is vital to get unified and flawless benefits for the business. Also working with such partners that aren’t just efficient sales and distribution centers but are also outstanding training and support destinations with detailed expertise in Tally customization is vital. The reason being firms can get the benefit of getting all services under one roof rather than wasting quality time exploring various vendors for relevant services.

Interview Questions

Angularjs Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers Pdf

Angularjs Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers Pdf

  • Explain AngularJS?
  • What is data binding in AngularJS?
  • Explain the scope in AngularJS?
  • What are the services in AngularJS?
  • Define the filters in AngularJS?
  • What is routing in AngularJS?
  • What is deep linking in AngularJS?
  • Which are the core directives of AngularJS?
  • Explain AngularJS expressions?
  • How to make an ajax call using Angular JS?
  • What is use of $routeProvider in AngularJS?
  • What is $rootScope?
  • What is a service?
  • What is provider?
  • What are the differences between service and factory methods?
  • What are the controllers in AngularJS?
  • What is AngularJS? Can you explain it technically?
  • Explain AngularJS boot process?
  • What are the key differences between AngularJS and jQuery?
  • Define jQLite?
  • Explain the disadvantages of AngularJS?
  • Explain what is directive and mention what the different types of Directive in AngularJS?
  • Is AngularJS a templating system?

AngularJS Interview Questions and Answers


Top Reasons Why Would Companies Hire JavaScript Developers?

Companies at present putting more focus on hiring JavaScript developers. The organisations are nowadays spending a large amount of money, time along with efforts to recruit talented, especially the younger and fresher ones in most cases for their quality of skills and because of the fact that they are in tune with the latest technology and trend of development. Read Advanced JavaScript interview questions for experienced at questionsandanswerspdf.com.


Right now, there are a number of reasons why modern organisations are putting their money on JavaScript developers.

The major reason why organizations bank on these is their background education. Most of candidates have a bachelor’s degree in software engineering, computer science, information technology and other degrees that are relevant with the niche of business that is run by the companies. Learn more about JavaScript at JavaScript.com

However, certain businesses put more focus on the experienced, instead of the degrees they hold. That is a different issue altogether though.

Companies put money because of a good understanding of the software development life cycle which these professionals have. Moreover, they have a strong concept – a fact that augments their programming skills for the client-side as well as server-side languages. This is very important as not every project or client needs only JavaScript but the ancillary programming platforms as well. Likewise, when it comes to personal traits, these professionals have extremely strong analytical skills along with trouble shooting expertise – a fact that comes in extremely handy in software development. Additionally, they have got the necessary psychological getup to work in sync with others in a team. That is itself a reason enough for companies to hire them.

Apart from all these issues, good to know their responsibilities and have an excellent professional outlook that make all the difference. The majority of the JavaScript development programs are particularly designed as well as developed for web-based along with different server-based applications that are generally used on web sites and computer systems. Read advanced JavaScript interview questions for experienced.

After development, it is necessary to evaluate the programs properly. A good developer would also have the expertise to evaluate these programming scripts and hence, companies hire them to cut costs as a programmer will be able to develop as well as evaluate the scripts. They are also expert in testing the language extensively to see whether it is functioning properly before it is handed over to the client. They also ensure that the script is totally free of bugs.

These professionals, especially the fresh pass outs have an extensive knowledge on the latest Java Virtual Machine or JVM languages and this helps them complete the tasks faster. They are also are expert in building an application that will make the language simpler. This at the end of the day saves a lot of money for the companies.

The key for the companies is to look for the best engineers who are involved in the software development community so that they are in tune with the latest technology and are fresh from the point of view of concept-creation. This is to make sure that the businesses get maximum return from the investment they put on JavaScript developers who are the mainstay of business development.

Experts are not only skilled and experienced, but they are proficient in other languages as well, like C, C++, Net, Python, Joomla and so on. They have perfect skills. So, however hiring such a professional is quite cost-effective, taking into account today’s inflation, still companies vie on them as this pays off in the short as well as long run subsequently. However, in order to save costs of late companies are growing a propensity of hiring offshore professionals instead of employing individuals on a full time basis. These professionals will offer you maintenance as well as other ancillary services at no additional costs and this helps the companies to cut costs to a large extent.

Interview Questions

Ab Initio Scenario Based Interview Questions @ Interview-blog.com

Read TOP Ab Initio Scenario Based Interview Questions pdf download, most asked Ab Initio Scenario Based Interview Questions for experienced freshers.


List of Ab Initio Scenario Based Interview Questions @ Interview-blog.com

  1. Explain the difference between the truncate and delete commands?
  2. What does dependency analysis mean in Ab Initio?
  3. What is the difference between rollup and scan?
  4. How can i run the 2 GUI merge files?
  5. What methods exist for performance tuning? Ab Initio Scenario Based Questions
  6. What means writing of wrapper?
  7. What is the reason for using parameterized graphs?
  8. What is API mode versus the utility mode?
  9. What is the reason for a database to contain stored procedures?
  10. What is the purpose of ramp limit? Questions Scenario Based Ab Initio
  11. What is the role of a driving port?
  12. What can we say about partitioning with key and round robin?
  13. What is the definition of a multistage component?
  14. What are the supported layouts in Ab Initio?
  15. What can we say about the Scan component versus a RollUp component? Ab Initio Questions Scenario based
  16. What is the meaning of a DB config versus a CFG file?
  17. How the term Standard Environment can be explained?
  18. How much memory do we need for a graph?
  19. What difference does exist between Checkpoint and Phase? Ab-Initio Questions
  20. What role has the XFR function?
  21. What possible errors we can receive from a graph execution?
  22. What is the meaning of EME?
  23. What meaning has lock in Ab Initio?
  24. Can a graph be infinitely run? If yes, how?
  25. What is the component that can be used to lower a file in size?

TO READ FULL ANSWERS GO HERE – https://goo.gl/A7Y2d7

Career Options

High Demand for Tax Accountant Jobs

When selecting a job there are plenty of different directions and interests that you can stick to. Choosing a career as tax accountant can be challenging and rewarding offering clients small and large from individuals to employers instructions on how best to manage their tax and the best advice for future planning.


Tax advisor’s need to have the ability to explain complicated legislation, and its possible implications on a client and their business in easy tangible bits of information.

Tax accountants also assist with all aspects of taxation this will help them get a full and detailed background in order for them to create the best tax strategy moving forward for their client and their company. This will involve carrying out a detailed look at the company’s accounts to calculate tax liability, submit tax returns by the appropriate deadline and then in turn deal with HMRC on behalf of their clients to resolve any issues that may have arisen.

Daily Activities

Although this is a basic list it demonstrates the likely tasks of a tax accountant and what they could expect.

Tax planning – It involves looking ahead and structuring clients business matters in a lawfully way to reduce future tax liabilities.

Tax compliance – It involves preparing and submitting tax returns, computations, and associated documents.

Based on the level of your first role as a tax accountant you may focus on compliance activities which can include completing tax returns and calculating amount payable with the future aimed at consultancy and specialization as their career develops as a tax accountant.

The work of a tax accountant will depend on the nature and size of the employer. Smaller firms will likely mean you will see a wider ranger of activity but work for smaller local based companies offering a personal service and getting to know your clients. On the other hand larger accountancy firms lend to choosing a specialism, starting your career in the area that you aim to specialize in can leave you well placed for progression in this area.

Work Activities

  • researching, analyzing and interpreting changing tax legislation
  • meeting with clients
  • working with tax law and revenue provisions
  • preparing and submitting tax returns
  • liaising and negotiating with HMRC
  • tax liabilities
  • family trusts
  • estate planning
  • providing guidance on indirect taxation issues.